Read Chapter 1, Introduction to Instructional Design, from Dick, Carey, and Carey. If you do not yet have the book you may continue with this lesson, but you should read Chapter 1 before proceeding with Lesson 4.

Instructional Models

Throughout the history of Instructional Design and Technology, there have been several different ways of approaching the instructional design process. In recent years this has been evidenced in the emergence of several instructional design models. Instructional design models are designed to provide a framework for you to follow when going through the process of creating instruction. There are many different models out there. While many of them are similar, they each take a slightly different approach to the design of instruction. Some are more systematic and/or prescriptive than others. Some are a step-by-step process, while others are more open-ended and allow one to take a less rigid path through the model. Most of them are represented by a model to make it easier to follow. More importantly, each incorporates certain theories and principles that have been culled from the research that has been done in our field. A basic instructional design model is known as the ADDIE model. This stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.

Most models today tend to be a variation of this basic model. Some leave out one or two of the steps, some emphasize certain steps over others depending on the learner, the content and the context, and some have added steps so that the model works in a certain environment and for specific learners.

You will be exposed to several ID models during your stay in the ITMA program. You will undoubtedly notice many similarities in the different models. However, some of the more streamlined models leave out some important issues in the design process. This was done in order to tailor the models to the audiences they were designed for. Therefore, in this course, you will be introduced to a systematic process for designing instruction originally created by Walter Dick and Lou Carey. It has come to be known as the Dick, Carey, and Carey (Dick, Carey & Carey) model of instructional design. The image below shows you the steps in their model:

The Dick, Carey & Carey model is one of the better-known ID models and is used by educators, trainers, and instructional designers. It is a widely-used model that is based on research and principles that have been generally accepted by those in our field. This is not to say that the Dick, Carey & Carey model is the best model. In fact, there are probably those who feel that any model such as this is too structured and rigid. Others critics feel that it is too much in the behaviorist vein, and as such is not good to use for those who wish to take a constructivist approach to teaching or training. However, there is much to be gained from developing an understanding of a model such as this, even for constructivists.

Take a moment to review and compare various instructional design models and methods below:

Merrill's First Principles of Instruction
Dick and Carey Model
Kemp's Instructional Design Model
Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction
Bloom's Learning Taxonomy
Kirkpatrick's 4 Levels of Training Evaluation
Cathy Moore's Action Mapping

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There are many models. These are just a small sampling. What do you think about the models that have the circular shape? Many designers feel more comfortable with a design model that demonstrates the iterative nature of instructional design. Most design models are created to help designers follow professional standards, offer consistency (successful designs can be duplicated), and provide quality control in the profession.

As the models help to guide us through the phases of a design process, a constant revision process must occur if we want to assess our progress or "success." Although the Dick, Carey & Carey model is linear in appearance, you will find that in reality, the progress of an instructional designer through the model is never linear.