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Lesson 6 - Writing Objectives

Lesson 6 Readings
  • Read Chapter 6, Writing Performance Objectives, from Dick and Carey.
  • If you have the Mager book, Preparing Instructional Objectives,you should read this book before writing your objectives.It is strongly recommended that you read this book before writing your objectives.

Background Information

By now you've assessed your needs to determine the skills and knowledge you want your learners to acquire. Then you wrote an appropriate, feasible, and clearly stated instructional goal. After that you analyzed that goal to identify substeps, subordinate skills, and entry behaviors. Finally, you analyzed the learners, the performance context, and the learning context. At this point you are finished with the analysis phase of instructional design. The next step in the Dick and Carey instructional design model is to write a list of objectives for your goal based on all this information you have gathered. In the ASSURE model, this would be the second step (State Objectives).

Writing objectives is the best-known component of the instructional design model. Chapter 6 in the Dick and Carey book describes the process of writing objectives. This process works best as a component of a complete instructional design model as opposed to on its own. You need the information from the needs assessment, the goal analysis, the instructional analysis, and the learner and context analyses to be able write effective objectives. The objectives are then in turn carried over to subsequent stages of the instructional design process so that they influence all future design decisions. A set of clear objectives will give you a sound basis for selecting or developing instructional materials, as well as a means for evaluating whether or not your instruction has been successful. You can also use them in your instruction to inform the learners of what they will be expected to learn. Informing learners of the objectives can help provide more learner control and also help students link new knowledge to old knowledge.

Overview of Objectives

What is an objective? According to Dick and Carey, a performance objective is a detailed description of what students will be able to do when they complete a unit of instruction. It is also referred to as a behavioral objective or an instructional objective. Robert Mager, in his book Preparing Instructional Objectives, describes an objective as "a collection of words and/or pictures and diagrams intended to let others know what you intend for your students to achieve" (pg. 3). An objective does not describe what the instructor will be doing, but instead the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that the instructor will be attempting to produce in learners. This is a very important distinction. Mager emphasizes the need for clear, precise statements of what students should be able to do when they complete their instruction. He believes that this should be done before any development work is started.

Objectives are derived from the skills you identified in the instructional analysis. Generally you should write one or more objectives for each skill listed in your instructional analysis, including your entry behaviors. Objectives can be skills (intellectual or motor), knowledge, or attitudes. Worthwhile objectives are statements of behaviors representing:

  • Skills students will actually use in their real life.
  • Skills required in order to acquire other useful skills.
  • Skills the teacher wants students to use in their real life (and they will probably have the opportunity to do so).
  • Skills the students want to use in their real life.

How does an objective compare to a goal statement? Well, the goal statement is a much broader statement of what students will be able to do after completing a set of instructional materials, and includes a real-world (performance) context outside of the learning situation. Objectives are much more specific, and describe a context within the learning situation. They are therefore better to use as the basis for planning instructional activities. If a goal statement is written in the form of an objective it then becomes the terminal objective. The terminal objective has all of the components of a performance objective, but its conditions reflect the context that will be available in the learning environment as opposed to the performance environment.

Three Components of an Effective Objective

Before attempting to write your own objectives, it's important to understand what an objective should and shouldn't contain. According to Mager (1997), there are three main components of an effective objective:

  1. Performance
  2. Conditions
  3. Criterion

1. Performance

The Performance component is a description of the behavior that learners are expected to perform. It should be measurable and observable. It describes what the learner will be doing when demonstrating mastery of an objective. Mager distinguishes between two types of performances - visible and invisible. With a visible performance the main intent is visible or audible. For example,

  • Be able to dance.
  • Be able to interview.
  • Be able to paint a picture of a mountain.

In each of these instances you can tell when somebody is performing the task. If a statement does not include a visible performance then it isn't yet an objective. Therefore, you should modify each of your objectives until it answers the question, "What will the learner be DOING when demonstrating achievement of the objective?"

Here are a couple of poor examples:

  • Be able to understand mathematics.
  • Develop an appreciation of music.

If you apply the question above, what would somebody be doing if they were "understanding" mathematics or "appreciating" music? There's really no way to tell as both of those statements describe abstract states that are not directly observable.

Here are some good examples:

  • Be able to ride a bicycle.
  • Be able to write a letter.

What would someone be doing if they were demonstrating mastery of these objectives? Well, in the first case they would be riding a bike, and in the second case they would be writing a letter. Those are easily identifiable behaviors.

2. Conditions

The Conditions component of an objective is a description of the circumstances under which the performance will be carried out. It also includes a description of what will be available to learners when they perform the desired behavior. Specifying the conditions further helps to prevent misunderstanding of your intent. For example, if you are given the objective:

  • Travel from New York to Washington DC in 2 hours

You could probably do that - if you were on a plane. However, what if the objective were stated like this?

  • Given an automobile, travel from New York to Washington DC in two hours

or this:

  • Using your own two feet, travel from New York to Washington DC in two hours?

Those two might be a little more difficult, or impossible. In both cases the conditions of the objective make it clear what the intent is. In order to avoid any confusion regarding your objective you should state the main condition under which the performance will occur. In order to identify key conditions, ask yourself the following:

  1. What will the learners be expected to use when performing (e.g., tools, forms, charts, etc.)?
  2. What will the learner not be allowed to use while performing (e.g., checklists, notes, or other study aids)?
  3. What will be the real-world conditions under which the performance will be expected to occur (e.g., on top of a flagpole, under water, in front of a large audience, in a manufacturing plant)?

Here are some examples of conditions:

  • Given a standard set of tools and a malfunctioning motor...
  • Using a metric ruler...
  • Given a set of whole numbers...
  • In the presence of an irate customer...
  • Without the aid of class notes...
  • Using only a screwdriver...
  • Given a fully-functioning video camera...
  • Given a list of chemical elements...

Here are some examples of objectives with conditions:

  • Given a product and a prospective customer, be able to describe the key features of the product. (The performance is to occur in the presence of a product and a customer - these are the conditions that will influence the nature of the performance.)
  • Given a bicycle and a flat street, be able to ride the bike to the end and back. (The conditions that will influence the performance are the bike and the flat street.)

3. Criterion

The final component of an effective objective is the Criterion. The criterion is a description of the criteria for acceptance of a performance as sufficient, indicating mastery of the objective. In other words, how well must it be done? Stating the criterion lets learners know how well they will have to perform to be considered competent. In addition, it provides a standard against which to test the success of the instruction, and gives you a way of evaluating whether or not the learners can, in fact, do what you set out to teach them.

The criterion you specify should be what you consider to be the desired or appropriate level of performance, not necessarily minimum level. In some cases (a person stitching up clothes), a certain amount of error might be acceptable, while in other cases (a doctor stitching up a person), no error is acceptable. In addition, you should only impose criteria that are important.

Here's an example of an objective with criteria:

  • Given a computer with word-processing software, be able to write a simple letter. There should be no spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors. (The criteria are that there should be no errors in the final letter).

There are two main ways to define a criterion of acceptable performance: Speed and Accuracy

  1. Speed - providing a time limit within which a given performance must occur. If a time limit is important, it should be stated as part of the objective. If a time limit is not important, then do not impose a time limit. Some examples:
    • in under two hours.
    • within fifteen minutes.
    • before midnight.

  2. Accuracy - giving a range of acceptable performance. Some examples:
    • within two inches of accuracy.
    • to the nearest whole number.
    • with no more than two incorrect entries in the log.

 

Here's an example of an objective containing all three components:

  • Students will tell the time represented on an analog clock to the nearest minute.

"tell the time" represents the performance
"analog clock" represents the condition
"to the nearest minute" represents the criterion.

A poorly written objective dealing with the same topic would be "The students will know how to tell time."

Writing Your Own Objectives

Dick and Carey provide several steps to follow when writing objectives:

  1. Review your goal statement to determine if it includes a description of the ultimate context in which the goal will be used.
  2. Write a terminal objective based on the goal statement. A terminal objective is similar to a goal statement but includes the three components of a performance objective and includes the context that will be available in the learning environment as opposed to the performance environment. (You can see the distinction by looking at the example in Table 6.1 on page 132 of your book).
  3. Write objectives for each step in your instructional analysis.
  4. Write an objective for each group of substeps, or for each individual substep.
  5. Write objectives for all subordinate skills.
  6. Write objectives for entry behaviors if some students are likely to not possess them.

Remember that a usefully stated objective is one that succeeds in communicating an intended instructional result to the reader. It is useful to the extent that it conveys to others a picture of what a successful learner will be able to do; and to the extent that the picture it conveys is identical to the picture the objective writer had in mind. When you finish writing an objective, stop to look at it and ask yourself why you want students to be able to do what you've described in the objective. If the answer is, "Because that is one of the things they need to be able to do when they leave here," then the objective is probably acceptable. However, if the answer is, "So that they will be able to _____________," and you fill in the blank with something other than what the objective describes, then it may be describing a teaching procedure. If this is the case, try reworking it.

Points to Keep in Mind When Writing Objectives

Mager describes three important issues to consider when writing objectives:

  1. They are related to intended outcomes, rather than the process for achieving those outcomes.
  2. They are specific and measurable, rather than broad and intangible.
  3. They are concerned with students, not teachers.

Let's take a closer look at each of these points.

Outcomes vs. Process

Teaching and lecturing is part of the process of instruction, but it isn't the purpose of the instruction. The purpose is to facilitate learning. When writing objectives, make sure you are describing the intended results, and not the process. The following are descriptions of the process, rather than of the intended results:

  • To provide a lecture on renaissance painters.
  • Be able to read in front of the class.
  • This course provides practice and feedback.
  • Develop confidence.

Specific vs. General

If your objectives are not specific enough, then they are pretty much useless for their intended purpose. They need to be specific so that they will help you to make sound instructional decisions later in the ID process. Here are some fuzzy statements:

  • Understand energy.
  • Know the president.
  • Be able to think clearly.

Here are some statements that are clearer:

  • Tie a shoe.
  • Assemble a bicycle.
  • Shake hands when greeting customers.

With the specific statements you would easily be able to determine if someone has met the objective.

Measurable vs. Unmeasurable

Measurable objectives describe tangible outcomes that can be observed. The statement above that states "tie a shoe" is measurable because we can watch someone tie a shoe and determine if they have met the objective. The statement "understand energy" is not measurable. How would we know if someone understood the concept of energy? This would need to be broken down into much more specific, observable behaviors.

Students vs. Instructors

The last point is that instructional objectives should describe the student's performance rather than the instructor's performance. Here are some that relate to the instructor's performance:

  • Lecture on the Theory of Relativity.
  • Teach the importance of washing one's hands.
  • Arrange instructional activities.

Here are some that relate to the student's performance. These examples relate to specific, measurable student outcomes:

  • Be able to write a resume.
  • State three causes of the Civil War.
  • Add two digit numbers together.



Now that we've discussed each of the three points, here's an example of an objective that violates all three of them:

  • Students will be taught about the causes of the Civil War.

This objective is not related to outcomes, it is too broad, and is concerned with the teaching process instead of the learning process.

More About the Wording of Objectives

One of the biggest problems with poorly written objectives is the choice of words used to indicate the type of performance expected. In the example above, "will know how to tell time" is not a clear enough statement of what the learners will actually be doing. There are many slippery words that are open to a wide range of interpretation when writing objectives. It is important not to use broad or vague terms when trying to convey a specific instructional intent, or you leave yourself open to misinterpretation. The following chart lists some of the most common unclear words used in goals and objectives, as well as more specific, better alternatives.

Common Ambiguous Words

"Better" Performance Words

  • Know
  • Understand
  • Really understand
  • Determine
  • Appreciate
  • Fully appreciate
  • Grasp the significance of
  • Enjoy
  • Become familiar with
  • Become aware of
  • Believe
  • Learn
  • Have faith in
  • Internalize
  • Be happy
  • Value
  • Acquire
  • Develop
  • Choose (or select)
  • Solve
  • Write
  • Identify
  • State
  • List
  • Recite
  • Apply
  • Sort
  • Assemble
  • Adjust
  • Build
  • Align
  • Compare
  • Contrast
  • Smile
  • Use
  • Perform
  • Execute
  • Classify
  • Draw
  • Construct

When looking over your objectives, ask yourself if you could observe someone doing the behavior. It's hard to observe someone knowing or understanding. If any of your objectives contain these vague words, rewrite them to include verbs that actually describe the intended behavior. What you want to do is state how learners are going to demonstrate that they know or understand the skills. Try using words from the list on the right.

To help you in writing your own objectives, here is a chart listing the categories of learning (from Lesson 3) along with some of the more common verbs used when writing objectives for that category:

Category Common Verbs

Verbal Information

State, Recite, Tell, Declare, Name, List, Define

Intellectual Skills: Concrete Concepts

Identify, Label

Intellectual Skills: Defined Concepts

Classify instances, Sort, Categorize

Intellectual Skills: Rules

Solve, Show, Demonstrate, Generate, Develop, Create, Determine, Calculate, Predict

Intellectual Skills: Higher-order Rules (Problem Solving)

Solve, Show, Demonstrate, Generate, Develop, Create, Determine, Calculate, Predict, Defend, Support
Motor Skills Execute, Perform, Swim, Walk, Run, Climb, Drill, Saw, Assemble, Build
Attitudes Choose, Decide, Participate

The following represent some poorly written objectives taken from a number of commercially produced instructional materials:

  • The students will demonstrate a knowledge of the principles of magnetism.
  • The students will be able to recognize that the practical application of democratic ideals requires time, adjustment, and continuous effort.
  • The students will understand the use of commas.
  • The students will recognize an autobiography.
  • Employees will demonstrate positive habits of the mind.

Another common problem with objectives is the use of superfluous wording that often makes the actual performance fuzzy. For example, using "Students will learn how to..." tends to emphasize the teaching rather than the learning (permanent change in behavior). Another common problem with poorly worded objectives is the description of instruction as part of the condition. These objectives might state, "After viewing a filmstrip..." or "Given a math worksheet..." and then indicate that students will be given some type of instruction. Things like instructional procedures, descriptions of the target audience, or format requirements are not useful and should be left out of objectives. For example, look at the following statement:

  • Following two lectures on the Civil War, ...

This statement does not serve a useful purpose, and is limiting. An instructor might be able to accomplish the same thing in one lecture, or some students may not need any lecture to achieve the goal. The objective should only be concerned with student outcomes. Here are some more poor examples, this time with improved versions:

Bad: The student will demonstrate metric measurement of length.
Better: Given a metric ruler, the students will measure the length of common linear objects to the nearest millimeter.

Bad: The students will learn about objectives.
Better: The student will construct well-written instructional objectives.

Bad: The students will solve addition problems with 80% accuracy.
Better: The student will correctly solve at least 8 out of 10 addition problems that require borrowing.
Best: Given two numbers not written in equation form, the students will place the numbers in equation form and add them together (some will require borrowing).

Conclusions

After generating a list of objectives, you will be ready to move to subsequent stages of the instructional design process, including the creation of assessment items and the development of instructional activities. It is important to begin with determining the objectives, and then decide on the most effective activities, NOT the other way around. Too often teachers decide that they have a really neat activity they want to do and have little idea of what objectives that activity will meet. It may be that the activity meets no relevant objectives, in which case the difficult decision may have to be made to eliminate the activity. This is not entirely bad, though, because it opens up the possibility of new, more relevant activities being created that do address the objectives.

As stated earlier, oftentimes teachers are presented with prewritten goals (such as the SOLs). Additionally, many times they will also have access to lists of objectives. If this is the case, you should check to see if those objectives are representative of the objectives you want your students to attain, or what they are expected to attain.

In summary, to prepare a useful, well-written objective, make sure these questions are answered:

  1. What do I want students to be able to do?
  2. What are the important conditions or constraints under which I want them to perform?
  3. How well must students perform for me to be satisfied?

Examples

Let's go back to our example of teaching students how to use the AltaVista search engine to perform research. Here's another look at the completed instructional analysis:

Here is a list of objectives that were written based on the analysis. Notice that the numbers of the objectives match the numbers in the flowchart for each substep or subordinate skill. Also, since goal step 1.0 was identified as an entry behavior, we have not written objectives for those skills.

2.1 Given a computer with Internet access, perform the steps necessary to open a dialog box asking for an Internet address.

2.2 List the URL for AltaVista as "http://www.altavista.com/"

2.0 Given a computer with Internet access, locate the AltaVista web site.

3.2 Given a list of the keywords AND, OR, NOT and NEAR and a list of possible actions, match each word with its action.

3.3 Given a range of dates, write them in the proper From and To format for use by AltaVisa.

3.4 Given a search topic and a ranking word, conduct a search on the topic that will rank the results by the ranking word.

3.5 Given a search topic and a required word, write a search string that guarantees that word will appear in all the results.

3.5 Given a search topic and an excluded word, write a search string that guarantees that word will not appear in the results.

3.6 Given an exact phrase or quote, write a search string that will search for that phrase.

3.7 Given a topic word, write a search string using a wildcard that will search for all words starting with that topic word.

3.8 Given computer access to the AltaVista web site and a sample search string, enter the string in the space provided and initiate a search.

3.0 Given computer access to the AltaVista web site and a search topic, initiate a search that results in between 10 and 500 search results.

4.1 Without assistance, list three criteria for evaluating search results and selecting appropriate sites.

4.0 Given a research topic and a list of ten AltaVista search results, select the three sites most appropriate to the research topic.

5.1 Without assistance, list all five criteria for evaluating individual web sites.

5.0 Given a research topic and three web addresses, go to each address, evaluate the information and choose the one that is most appropriate to the research topic.

In addition, Appendix D in the Dick and Carey book lists objectives for some of the subordinate skills for their goal on story writing. The first column shows lists the subskill, and the second column lists the accompanying objective. You can ignore the third column for the time being, as that deals with assessment, which will be covered in the next Lesson.

Instructional Design Project Part Four

Using all the information you've acquired up to this point, it is now time to write objectives describing exactly what it is you want your learners to be able to do when they finish with your instruction. In this activity you will begin working on Part 4 of your ID Project. Part 4 will be comprised of the activities from Lessons 6 and 7, so you will not turn this part in until after Lesson 7.

To begin with, write down your original goal statement. Then create a terminal objective based on that goal statement. Remember, the terminal objective has all of the components of a performance objective, and its conditions reflect the context that will be available in the learning environment. When you are finished you should have your original goal statement, and the terminal objective written below it.

Once you have your terminal objective, write down each of your goal steps, substeps, and subordinate skills in order. Do not worry about your entry behaviors at this point, just the skills you are going to include in your instruction. Beneath each one, answer the following questions:

  1. What behavior or performance is expected of the learner? In other words, precisely what should the learner be able to do?
  2. What are the conditions that will prevail while the learner is attempting to accomplish the goal?
  3. What are the criteria that will be used to determine if the learner has achieved the goal?

After answering these questions, write a performance objective for each step, substep, and subordinate skill in your instructional analysis. You do not have to write objectives for your entry behaviors. Each objective you write should contain the three components of an effective objective: the Performance, the Conditions, and the Criterion. If you answer the three questions above effectively then you should be able to pull the information directly from your responses. Number each objective according to how its box is numbered in the instructional analysis; this way it will be easier to match them up.

Here's an example of what your document should look like for each step, substep, and subordinate skill:

Step 4.0 - Evaluate search results to select appropriate sites.
  1. Performance - I want them to be able to select web sites that are appropriate to their research topic.
  2. Conditions - They will be given a research topic and a list of search results from AltaVista that are related to that topic.
  3. Criteria - They should pick the three best sites from the list using the criteria that they were taught.

Objective 4.0 - Given a research topic and a list of ten AltaVista search results, select the three sites most appropriate to the research topic.

When you have all of your objectives written, insert a copy of your instructional analysis flowchart above your list of objectives.

Submitting Part Four of your ID Project

Part Four of your ID Project should be typed up in Microsoft Word. At the top of the paper type "ID Project Part Four: Objectives and Assessment". Underneath that include your name, email address, and the date. When you save the file name it "objectives.doc". You will continue to work on Part 4 of your ID Project in Lesson 7, so you do not need to submit it in until then.

Assignment: ID Project Part Four
Points:
20
Suggested Due Date: Wait until Lesson 7

Grading Criteria:

  • Goal Statement restated. Terminal Objective derived from Goal Statement. (2)

  • For each goal step, substep, and subordinate skill, includes a description of the performance expected from the learner. (2)
  • For each goal step, substep, and subordinate skill, includes a description of the conditions that will prevail while learners attempt to accomplish the goal. (2)
  • For each goal step, substep, and subordinate skill, includes a description of the criteria that will be used to determine if learners have achieved the objective. (2)
  • Effective and well-written objective derived from each goal step, substep, and subordinate skill. Each objective contains three components: Performance, Standards, and Criterion. (10)
  • Objectives numbered clearly. (1)
  • Instructional Analysis flowchart included in document. (1)